Menambah laman sesawang berita kegemaran anda

calibre mempunyai bingkai kerja yang hebat, fleksibel dan mudah digunakan untuk memuat turun berita dari Internet dan menukar ia menjadi e-buku. Yang berikut akan menunjukkan kepada anda, dengan contoh bagaimana hendak dapatkan berita dari pelbagai laman sesawang.

Untuk memahami bagaimana hendak guna bingkai kerja, ikuti contoh yang tersenarai tertib di bawah:

Pemerolehan automatik sepenuhnya

Jika sumber berita anda adalah ringkas, calibre boleh mendapatkannya dengan sepenuhnya secara automatik, apa yang anda perlu sediakan adalah URL. calibre menghimpun semua maklumat yang diperlukan untuk memuat turun sumber berita dalam bentuk resepi. Untuk memberitahu calibre berkenaan sumber beritah, anda perlu cipta resepi untuknya. Ok, mari kita lihat beberapa contoh yang disediakan:

Blog calibre

Blog calibre adalah blog pos yang menjelaskan banyak fitur calibre yang berguna dalam cara yang mudah dan boleh dicapai untuk pengguna baru calibre. Untuk memuat turun blog ini menjadi e-buku, kami bergantung pada suapan RSS blog:

http://blog.calibre-ebook.com/feeds/posts/default

Saya perolehi URL RSS dengan meneliti "Subscribe to" di bahagian bawah laman blog dan pilih Posts → Atom. Supaya calibre dapat memuat turun suapan dan menukarkanya menjadi e-buku, anda boleh klik-kanan butang Dapatkan berita kemudian item menu Tambah sumber berita suai dan kemudian butang Resepi Baharu. Satu dialog serupa dengan yang telah ditunjukkan akan dibuka.

_images/custom_news.png

Pertama sekali masukkan Blog calibre ke dalam medan Tajuk resepi. Ia akan menjadi tajuk e-buku yang akan dicipta dari artikel dalam suapan seperti di atas.

Dua medan berikutnya (Oldest article dan Max. number of articles) membolehkan anda kawal berapa banyak artikel yang patut dimuat turun dari setiap suapan.

Untuk menambah suapan ke dalam resepi, masukkan tajuk suapan dan URL suapan kemudian klik butang Tambah suapan. Selepas itu, hanya klik butang Simpan dan kerja anda telah selesai! Tutup dialog.

Untuk menguji resepi baharu anda, klik butang Dapatkan berita dan pada sub-menu Suai sumber baharu klik calibre Blog. Selepas beberapa minit, e-buku baharu dimuat turun akan muncul dalam paparan pustaka utama (jika anda memiliki pembaca yang telah bersambung, ia akan dimasukkan ke dalam pembaca selain dari ke dalam pustaka). Pilih e-buku tersebut dan tekan butang :guilabel:`Lihat' untuk membaca!

Sebab apa proses ini menghasilkan e-buku yang baik, kerana blog ini menyediakan suapan RSS dengan kandungan-lengkap iaitu, kandungan artikel sebenar terbenam dalam suapan itu sendiri. Bagi kebanyakan sumber berita yang menyediakan berita dengan suapan dengan kandungan-lengkap, anda tidak perlu buat lebih kerja untuk menukar ia menjadi e-buku. Sekarang kita lihat sumber berita yang tidak menyediakan suapan dengan kandungan-lengkap. Suapan sebegini, artikel lengkap berada dalam laman sesawang dan suapan hanya menyediakan pautan ke laman sesawang dengan ringkasan pendek artikel berkenaan.

bbc.co.uk

Cuba masukkan dua suapan berikut daripad a*The BBC*:

Ikuti prosedur yang digariskan dalam Blog calibre seperti di atas untuk menghasilkan resepi untuk The BBC (menggunakan suapan tersebut). Berdasarkan pada e-buku yang dimuat turun, didapati calibre telah melakukan kerja yang bagus hanya mengekstrak kandungan yang dikehendaki bagi setiap artikel dalam laman sesawang. Walaubagaimanapun, proses pengekstrakan ini tidaklah seratus peratus sempurna. Kadangkala ia meninggalkan kandungan yang tidak dikehendaki seperti menu dan bantuan navigasi atau ia telah buang kandungan yang sepatutnya diambil seperti tajuk artikel. Untuk memastikan pengekstrakan kandungan menepati kehendak anda, kita perlu suaikan proses mendapatkan artikel, yang dijelaskan pada seksyen yang berikutnya.

Penyuaian proses mendapatkan artikel

Bila anda mahukan proses muat turun yang sempurna, atau muat turun kandungan dari laman sesawang yang kompleks, anda perlu biasakan dengan bingkai kerja resepi yang fleksibel. Untuk membuatnya, pada dialog Tambah sumber berita suai, hanya klik butang Tukar ke mod Lanjutan.

Penyuaian termudah dan paling produktif ialah dengan menggunakan versi cetak artikel atas-talian. Versi cetak biasanya kurang kompleks dan mudah diterjemah menjadi e-buku. Cuba guna versi cetak daripada The BBC.

Menggunakan versi cetak bbc.co.uk

Langkah pertama adalah melihat e-buku yang telah dimuat turun sebelum ini daripada bbc.co.uk. Dipenghujung setiap artikel, dalam e-buku terdapat lokasi artikel dimuat turun. Salin dan tampal URL tersebut ke dalam pelayar. Sekarang laman sesawang artikel akan menuju ke "Versi Boleh Cetak". Klik padanya untuk melihat versi cetak artikel. Ia kelihatan lebih kemas! Sekarang bandingkan kedua-dua URL yang mana:

Jika mahukan versi cetak, kita perlu tambah setiap URL artikel dengan:

newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/

Sekarang dalam Mod Lanjutan dialog Sumber berita suai, anda dapat melihat seperti berikut (perlu pilih resepi The BBC sebelum tukar ke mod lanjutan):

_images/bbc_advanced.png

Anda dapati medan dari Mod asas telah diterjemah dalam kod bahasa Python. Kita perlu tambah arahan ke dalam resepi ini supaya dapat guna versi cetak artikel. Apa yang diperlukan adalah dengan menambah dua baris berikut:

def print_version(self, url):
    return url.replace('https://', 'https://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/')

Ini adalah bahasa Python, oleh itu penggunaan indentasi adalah penting. Selepas anda menambah baris, ia sepatutnya kelihatan seperti berikut:

_images/bbc_altered.png

Di bahagian atas, def print_version(self, url) takrifkan satu kaedah yang dipanggil oleh calibre untuk setiap artikel. url ialah URL bagi artikel asal. Apa print_version buat ialah ia mengambil url tersebut dan gantikannya dengan URL baharu yang menuju ke versi cetak artikel. Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut berkenaan Python sila rujuk tutorial.

Sekarang, klik butang Tambah/kemaskini resepi dan perubahan yang anda buat akan disimpan. Muat semula e-buku. E-buku tersebut telah diperkemaskan. Salah satu masalah dengan versi baharu ialah fon yang digunakan pada versi cetak terlalu kecil. Ia dibaiki secara automatik bila menukar menjadi e-buku, tetapi selepas proses pembaikan, saiz fon bagi menu dan palang navigasi menjadi terlalu besar berbanding teks artikel. Untuk membaikinya, kita perlu lakukan lagi penyuaian, pada seksyen berikutnya.

Menggantikan gaya artikel

Dalam seksyen terdahulu, kita dapati saiz fon artikel dalam versi cetak The BBC terlalu kecil. Dalam kebanyakan laman sesawang, The BBC juga, saiz fon ini ditetapkan melalui lembaran gaya CSS. Kita boleh lumpuhkan pengambilan lembaran gaya tersebut dengan menambah baris:

no_stylesheets = True

Resepi kini kelihatan seperti:

_images/bbc_altered1.png

Versi baharu kelihatan menarik. Jika anda mementingkan kesempurnaan, anda perlu baca seksyen berikutnya yang melibatkan pengubahsuaian sebenar kandungan muat turun.

Menghiris dan mencincang

calibre memiliki keupayaan yang hebat dan fleksibel bila memanipulasikan kandungan muat turun. Sebagai contoh, kita rujuk kembali The BBC sekali lagi. Berdasarkan pada kod sumber (HTML) beberapa artikel (versi cetak), didapati mereka mempunyai pengkaki yang tidak diperlukan, terkandung didalamnya

<div class="footer">
...
</div>

Ia boleh dibuang dengan menambah:

remove_tags    = [dict(name='div', attrs={'class':'footer'})]

ke dalam resepi. Akhir sekali, gantikan beberapa CSS yang telah dilumpuhkan sebelum ini, dengan CSS anda sendiri yang sesuai dengan penukaran sesebuah e-buku:

extra_css      = '.headline {font-size: x-large;} \n .fact { padding-top: 10pt  }'

Dengan tambahan ini, resepi kita telah menjadi "produk berkualiti", kerana ia hampir menyamai resepi sebenar yang telah digunakan oleh calibre untuk BBC, seperti yang ditunjukkan:

##
# Title:        BBC News, Sport, and Blog Calibre Recipe
# Contact:      mattst - jmstanfield@gmail.com
##
# License:      GNU General Public License v3 - http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html
# Copyright:    mattst - jmstanfield@gmail.com
##
# Written:      November 2011
# Last Edited:  2011-11-19
##

__license__ = 'GNU General Public License v3 - http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html'
__copyright__ = 'mattst - jmstanfield@gmail.com'


'''
BBC News, Sport, and Blog Calibre Recipe
'''

# Import the regular expressions module.
import re

# Import the BasicNewsRecipe class which this class extends.
from calibre.web.feeds.recipes import BasicNewsRecipe


def classes(classes):
    q = frozenset(classes.split(' '))
    return dict(attrs={
        'class': lambda x: x and frozenset(x.split()).intersection(q)})


class BBCNews(BasicNewsRecipe):

    #
    #    **** IMPORTANT USERS READ ME ****
    #
    #  First select the feeds you want then scroll down below the feeds list
    #  and select the values you want for the other user preferences, like
    #  oldest_article and such like.
    #
    #
    #  Select the BBC rss feeds which you want in your ebook.
    #  Selected feed have NO '#' at their start, de-selected feeds begin with a '#'.
    #
    #  Eg.  ("News Home", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/... - include feed.
    #  Eg. #("News Home", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/... - do not include feed.
    #
    # There are 68 feeds below which constitute the bulk of the available rss
    # feeds on the BBC web site. These include 5 blogs by editors and
    # correspondents, 16 sports feeds, 15 'sub' regional feeds (Eg. North West
    # Wales, Scotland Business), and 7 Welsh language feeds.
    #
    # Some of the feeds are low volume (Eg. blogs), or very low volume (Eg. Click)
    # so if "oldest_article = 1.5" (only articles published in the last 36 hours)
    # you may get some 'empty feeds' which will not then be included in the ebook.
    #
    # The 15 feeds currently selected below are simply my default ones.
    #
    # Note: With all 68 feeds selected, oldest_article set to 2,
    # max_articles_per_feed set to 100, and simultaneous_downloads set to 10,
    # the ebook creation took 29 minutes on my speedy 100 mbps net connection,
    # fairly high-end desktop PC running Linux (Ubuntu Lucid-Lynx).
    # More realistically with 15 feeds selected, oldest_article set to 1.5,
    # max_articles_per_feed set to 100, and simultaneous_downloads set to 20,
    # it took 6 minutes. If that's too slow increase 'simultaneous_downloads'.
    #
    # Select / de-select the feeds you want in your ebook.
    #
    feeds = [
        ("News Home", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/rss.xml"),
        ("UK", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/uk/rss.xml"),
        ("World", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/rss.xml"),
        # ("England", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/england/rss.xml"),
        # ("Scotland", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/rss.xml"),
        # ("Wales", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/rss.xml"),
        # ("N. Ireland", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/northern_ireland/rss.xml"),
        # ("Africa", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/africa/rss.xml"),
        # ("Asia", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/asia/rss.xml"),
        # ("Europe", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/europe/rss.xml"),
        # ("Latin America", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/latin_america/rss.xml"),
        # ("Middle East", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/middle_east/rss.xml"),
        ("US & Canada", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/world/us_and_canada/rss.xml"),
        ("Politics", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/politics/rss.xml"),
        ("Science/Environment",
         "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/science_and_environment/rss.xml"),
        ("Technology", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/technology/rss.xml"),
        ("Magazine", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/magazine/rss.xml"),
        ("Entertainment/Arts",
         "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/entertainment_and_arts/rss.xml"),
        # ("Health", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/health/rss.xml"),
        # ("Education/Family", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/education/rss.xml"),
        ("Business", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/business/rss.xml"),
        ("Special Reports", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/special_reports/rss.xml"),
        ("Also in the News", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/also_in_the_news/rss.xml"),
        # ("Newsbeat", "http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/rss.xml"),
        # ("Click", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/newsonline_uk_edition/programmes/click_online/rss.xml"),
        # ("Blog: Mark D'Arcy (Parliamentary Correspondent)", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/correspondents/markdarcy/rss.sxml"),
        # ("Blog: Robert Peston (Business Editor)", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/correspondents/robertpeston/rss.sxml"),
        # ("Blog: Stephanie Flanders (Economics Editor)", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/correspondents/stephanieflanders/rss.sxml"),
        ("Sport Front Page",
         "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/front_page/rss.xml"),
        # ("Football", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/football/rss.xml"),
        # ("Cricket", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/cricket/rss.xml"),
        # ("Rugby Union", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/rugby_union/rss.xml"),
        # ("Rugby League", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/rugby_league/rss.xml"),
        # ("Tennis", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/tennis/rss.xml"),
        # ("Golf", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/golf/rss.xml"),
        # ("Motorsport", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/motorsport/rss.xml"),
        # ("Boxing", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/boxing/rss.xml"),
        # ("Athletics", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/athletics/rss.xml"),
        # ("Snooker", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/other_sports/snooker/rss.xml"),
        # ("Horse Racing", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/other_sports/horse_racing/rss.xml"),
        # ("Cycling", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/other_sports/cycling/rss.xml"),
        # ("Disability Sport", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/other_sports/disability_sport/rss.xml"),
        # ("Other Sport", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/other_sports/rss.xml"),
        # ("Olympics 2012", "http://newsrss.bbc.co.uk/rss/sportonline_uk_edition/other_sports/olympics_2012/rss.xml"),
        # ("N. Ireland Politics", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/northern_ireland/northern_ireland_politics/rss.xml"),
        # ("Scotland Politics", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/scotland_politics/rss.xml"),
        # ("Scotland Business", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/scotland_business/rss.xml"),
        # ("E. Scotland, Edinburgh & Fife", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/edinburgh_east_and_fife/rss.xml"),
        # ("W. Scotland & Glasgow", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/glasgow_and_west/rss.xml"),
        # ("Highlands & Islands", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/highlands_and_islands/rss.xml"),
        # ("NE. Scotland, Orkney & Shetland", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/north_east_orkney_and_shetland/rss.xml"),
        # ("South Scotland", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/south_scotland/rss.xml"),
        # ("Central Scotland & Tayside", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/scotland/tayside_and_central/rss.xml"),
        # ("Wales Politics", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/wales_politics/rss.xml"),
        # ("NW. Wales", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/north_west_wales/rss.xml"),
        # ("NE. Wales", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/north_east_wales/rss.xml"),
        # ("Mid. Wales", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/mid_wales/rss.xml"),
        # ("SW. Wales", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/south_west_wales/rss.xml"),
        # ("SE. Wales", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/wales/south_east_wales/rss.xml"),
        # ("Newyddion - News in Welsh", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/rss.xml"),
        # ("Gwleidyddiaeth", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/gwleidyddiaeth/rss.xml"),
        # ("Gogledd-Ddwyrain", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/gogledd-ddwyrain/rss.xml"),
        # ("Gogledd-Orllewin", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/gogledd-orllewin/rss.xml"),
        # ("Canolbarth", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/canolbarth/rss.xml"),
        # ("De-Ddwyrain", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/de-ddwyrain/rss.xml"),
        # ("De-Orllewin", "http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/newyddion/de-orllewin/rss.xml"),
    ]

    #    **** SELECT YOUR USER PREFERENCES ****

    # Title to use for the ebook.
    #
    title = 'BBC News'

    # A brief description for the ebook.
    #
    description = u'BBC web site ebook created using rss feeds.'

    # The max number of articles which may be downloaded from each feed.
    # I've never seen more than about 70 articles in a single feed in the
    # BBC feeds.
    #
    max_articles_per_feed = 100

    # The max age of articles which may be downloaded from each feed. This is
    # specified in days - note fractions of days are allowed, Eg. 2.5 (2 and a
    # half days). My default of 1.5 days is the last 36 hours, the point at
    # which I've decided 'news' becomes 'old news', but be warned this is not
    # so good for the blogs, technology, magazine, etc., and sports feeds.
    # You may wish to extend this to 2-5 but watch out ebook creation time will
    # increase as well. Setting this to 30 will get everything (AFAICT) as long
    # as max_articles_per_feed remains set high (except for 'Click' which is
    # v. low volume and its currently oldest article is 4th Feb 2011).
    #
    oldest_article = 1.5

    # Number of simultaneous downloads. 20 is consistantly working fine on the
    # BBC News feeds with no problems. Speeds things up from the defualt of 5.
    # If you have a lot of feeds and/or have increased oldest_article above 2
    # then you may wish to try increasing simultaneous_downloads to 25-30,
    # Or, of course, if you are in a hurry. [I've not tried beyond 20.]
    #
    simultaneous_downloads = 20

    # Timeout for fetching files from the server in seconds. The default of
    # 120 seconds, seems somewhat excessive.
    #
    timeout = 30

    # The format string for the date shown on the ebook's first page.
    # List of all values: http://docs.python.org/library/time.html
    # Default in news.py has a leading space so that's mirrored here.
    # As with 'feeds' select/de-select by adding/removing the initial '#',
    # only one timefmt should be selected, here's a few to choose from.
    #
    # [Fri, 14 Nov 2011] (Calibre default)
    timefmt = ' [%a, %d %b %Y]'
    # timefmt = ' [%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M]'       # [Fri, 14 Nov 2011 18:30]
    # timefmt = ' [%a, %d %b %Y %I:%M %p]'    # [Fri, 14 Nov 2011 06:30 PM]
    # timefmt = ' [%d %b %Y]'                 # [14 Nov 2011]
    # timefmt = ' [%d %b %Y %H:%M]'           # [14 Nov 2011 18.30]
    # timefmt = ' [%Y-%m-%d]'                 # [2011-11-14]
    # timefmt = ' [%Y-%m-%d-%H-%M]'           # [2011-11-14-18-30]

    #
    #    **** IMPORTANT ****
    #
    #    DO NOT EDIT BELOW HERE UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING.
    #
    #    DO NOT EDIT BELOW HERE UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING.
    #
    #    I MEAN IT, YES I DO, ABSOLUTELY, AT YOU OWN RISK. :)
    #
    #    **** IMPORTANT ****
    #

    # Author of this recipe.
    __author__ = 'mattst'

    # Specify English as the language of the RSS feeds (ISO-639 code).
    language = 'en_GB'

    # Set tags.
    tags = 'news, sport, blog'

    # Set publisher and publication type.
    publisher = 'BBC'
    publication_type = 'newspaper'

    # Disable stylesheets from site.
    no_stylesheets = True

    # Specifies an override encoding for sites that have an incorrect charset
    # specified. Default of 'None' says to auto-detect. Some other BBC recipes
    # use 'utf8', which works fine (so use that if necessary) but auto-detecting
    # with None is working fine, so stick with that for robustness.
    encoding = None

    # Sets whether a feed has full articles embedded in it. The BBC feeds do
    # not.
    use_embedded_content = False

    # Removes empty feeds - why keep them!?
    remove_empty_feeds = True
    ignore_duplicate_articles = {'title', 'url'}
    resolve_internal_links = True

    # Create a custom title which fits nicely in the Kindle title list.
    # Requires "import time" above class declaration, and replacing
    # title with custom_title in conversion_options (right column only).
    # Example of string below: "BBC News - 14 Nov 2011"
    #
    # custom_title = "BBC News - " + time.strftime('%d %b %Y')

    # Conversion options for advanced users. Avoid setting 'linearize_tables'
    # as that plays havoc with the 'old style' table based pages.
    conversion_options = {
        # 'title'       : title,
        # 'comments'    : description,
        # 'tags'        : tags,
        # 'language'    : language,
        # 'publisher'   : publisher,
        # 'authors'     : publisher,
        'smarten_punctuation' : True
    }

    # Specify extra CSS - overrides ALL other CSS (IE. Added last).
    extra_css = 'body { font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans-serif; } \
                 .introduction, .first { font-weight: bold; } \
                 .cross-head { font-weight: bold; font-size: 125%; } \
                 .cap, .caption { display: block; font-size: 80%; font-style: italic; } \
                 .cap, .caption, .caption img, .caption span { display: block; text-align: center; margin: 5px auto; } \
                 .byl, .byd, .byline img, .byline-name, .byline-title, .author-name, .author-position, \
                    .correspondent-portrait img, .byline-lead-in, .name, .bbc-role { display: block; \
                    text-align: center; font-size: 80%; font-style: italic; margin: 1px auto; } \
                 .story-date, .published { font-size: 80%; } \
                 table { width: 100%; } \
                 td img { display: block; margin: 5px auto; } \
                 ul { padding-top: 10px; } \
                 ol { padding-top: 10px; } \
                 li { padding-top: 5px; padding-bottom: 5px; } \
                 h1 { text-align: center; font-size: 175%; font-weight: bold; } \
                 h2 { text-align: center; font-size: 150%; font-weight: bold; } \
                 h3 { text-align: center; font-size: 125%; font-weight: bold; } \
                 h4, h5, h6 { text-align: center; font-size: 100%; font-weight: bold; }'

    # Remove various tag attributes to improve the look of the ebook pages.
    remove_attributes = ['border', 'cellspacing', 'align', 'cellpadding', 'colspan',
                         'valign', 'vspace', 'hspace', 'alt', 'width', 'height']

    # Remove the (admittedly rarely used) line breaks, "<br />", which sometimes
    # cause a section of the ebook to start in an unsightly fashion or, more
    # frequently, a "<br />" will muck up the formatting of a correspondant's byline.
    # "<br />" and "<br clear/>" are far more frequently used on the table formatted
    # style of pages, and really spoil the look of the ebook pages.
    preprocess_regexps = [(re.compile(r'<br[ ]*/>', re.IGNORECASE), lambda m: ''),
                          (re.compile(r'<br[ ]*clear.*/>', re.IGNORECASE), lambda m: '')]

    # Create regular expressions for tag keeping and removal to make the matches more
    # robust against minor changes and errors in the HTML, Eg. double spaces, leading
    # and trailing spaces, missing hyphens, and such like.
    # Python regular expression ('re' class) page:
    # http://docs.python.org/library/re.html

    # ***************************************
    # Regular expressions for keep_only_tags:
    # ***************************************

    # The BBC News HTML pages use variants of 'storybody' to denote the section of a HTML
    # page which contains the main text of the article. Match storybody variants: 'storybody',
    # 'story-body', 'story body','storybody ', etc.
    storybody_reg_exp = '^.*story[_ -]*body.*$'

    # The BBC sport and 'newsbeat' (features) HTML pages use 'blq_content' to hold the title
    # and published date. This is one level above the usual news pages which have the title
    # and date within 'story-body'. This is annoying since 'blq_content' must also be kept,
    # resulting in a lot of extra things to be removed by remove_tags.
    blq_content_reg_exp = '^.*blq[_ -]*content.*$'

    # The BBC has an alternative page design structure, which I suspect is an out-of-date
    # design but which is still used in some articles, Eg. 'Click' (technology), 'FastTrack'
    # (travel), and in some sport pages. These alternative pages are table based (which is
    # why I think they are an out-of-date design) and account for -I'm guesstimaking- less
    # than 1% of all articles. They use a table class 'storycontent' to hold the article
    # and like blq_content (above) have required lots of extra removal by
    # remove_tags.
    story_content_reg_exp = '^.*story[_ -]*content.*$'

    # Keep the sections of the HTML which match the list below. The HTML page created by
    # Calibre will fill <body> with those sections which are matched. Note that the
    # blq_content_reg_exp must be listed before storybody_reg_exp in keep_only_tags due to
    # it being the parent of storybody_reg_exp, that is to say the div class/id 'story-body'
    # will be inside div class/id 'blq_content' in the HTML (if 'blq_content' is there at
    # all). If they are the other way around in keep_only_tags then blq_content_reg_exp
    # will end up being discarded.
    keep_only_tags = [dict(name='table', attrs={'class': re.compile(story_content_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
                      dict(name='div',   attrs={'class': re.compile(
                           blq_content_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
                      dict(name='div',   attrs={'id': re.compile(
                           blq_content_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
                      dict(name='div',   attrs={'class': re.compile(
                           storybody_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
                      dict(name='div',   attrs={'id': re.compile(storybody_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)})]

    # ************************************
    # Regular expressions for remove_tags:
    # ************************************

    # Regular expression to remove share-help and variant tags. The share-help class
    # is used by the site for a variety of 'sharing' type links, Eg. Facebook, delicious,
    # twitter, email. Removed to avoid page clutter.
    share_help_reg_exp = '^.*share[_ -]*help.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove embedded-hyper and variant tags. This class is used to
    # display links to other BBC News articles on the same/similar subject.
    embedded_hyper_reg_exp = '^.*embed*ed[_ -]*hyper.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove hypertabs and variant tags. This class is used to
    # display a tab bar at the top of an article which allows the user to switch to
    # an article (viewed on the same page) providing further info., 'in depth' analysis,
    # an editorial, a correspondant's blog entry, and such like. The ability to handle
    # a tab bar of this nature is currently beyond the scope of this recipe and
    # possibly of Calibre itself (not sure about that - TO DO - check!).
    hypertabs_reg_exp = '^.*hyper[_ -]*tabs.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove story-feature and variant tags. Eg. 'story-feature',
    # 'story-feature related narrow', 'story-feature wide', 'story-feature narrow'.
    # This class is used to add additional info. boxes, or small lists, outside of
    # the main story. TO DO: Work out a way to incorporate these neatly.
    story_feature_reg_exp = '^.*story[_ -]*feature.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove video and variant tags, Eg. 'videoInStoryB',
    # 'videoInStoryC'. This class is used to embed video.
    video_reg_exp = '^.*video.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove audio and variant tags, Eg. 'audioInStoryD'.
    # This class is used to embed audio.
    audio_reg_exp = '^.*audio.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove pictureGallery and variant tags, Eg. 'pictureGallery'.
    # This class is used to embed a photo slideshow. See also 'slideshow'
    # below.
    picture_gallery_reg_exp = '^.*picture.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove slideshow and variant tags, Eg. 'dslideshow-enclosure'.
    # This class is used to embed a slideshow (not necessarily photo) but both
    # 'slideshow' and 'pictureGallery' are used for slideshows.
    slideshow_reg_exp = '^.*slide[_ -]*show.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove social-links and variant tags. This class is used to
    # display links to a BBC bloggers main page, used in various columnist's blogs
    # (Eg. Nick Robinson, Robert Preston).
    social_links_reg_exp = '^.*social[_ -]*links.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove quote and (multi) variant tags, Eg. 'quote',
    # 'endquote', 'quote-credit', 'quote-credit-title', etc. These are usually
    # removed by 'story-feature' removal (as they are usually within them), but
    # not always. The quotation removed is always (AFAICT) in the article text
    # as well but a 2nd copy is placed in a quote tag to draw attention to it.
    # The quote class tags may or may not appear in div's.
    quote_reg_exp = '^.*quote.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove hidden and variant tags, Eg. 'hidden'.
    # The purpose of these is unclear, they seem to be an internal link to a
    # section within the article, but the text of the link (Eg. 'Continue reading
    # the main story') never seems to be displayed anyway. Removed to avoid clutter.
    # The hidden class tags may or may not appear in div's.
    hidden_reg_exp = '^.*hidden.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove comment and variant tags, Eg. 'comment-introduction'.
    # Used on the site to display text about registered users entering
    # comments.
    comment_reg_exp = '^.*comment.*$'

    # Regular expression to remove form and variant tags, Eg. 'comment-form'.
    # Used on the site to allow registered BBC users to fill in forms, typically
    # for entering comments about an article.
    form_reg_exp = '^.*form.*$'

    # Extra things to remove due to the addition of 'blq_content' in
    # keep_only_tags.

    # <div class="story-actions"> Used on sports pages for 'email' and 'print'.
    story_actions_reg_exp = '^.*story[_ -]*actions.*$'

    # <div class="bookmark-list"> Used on sports pages instead of 'share-help' (for
    # social networking links).
    bookmark_list_reg_exp = '^.*bookmark[_ -]*list.*$'

    # <div id="secondary-content" class="content-group">
    # NOTE: Don't remove class="content-group" that is needed.
    # Used on sports pages to link to 'similar stories'.
    secondary_content_reg_exp = '^.*secondary[_ -]*content.*$'

    # <div id="featured-content" class="content-group">
    # NOTE: Don't remove class="content-group" that is needed.
    # Used on sports pages to link to pages like 'tables', 'fixtures', etc.
    featured_content_reg_exp = '^.*featured[_ -]*content.*$'

    # <div id="navigation">
    # Used on sports pages to link to pages like 'tables', 'fixtures', etc.
    # Used sometimes instead of "featured-content" above.
    navigation_reg_exp = '^.*navigation.*$'

    # <a class="skip" href="#blq-container-inner">Skip to top</a>
    # Used on sports pages to link to the top of the page.
    skip_reg_exp = '^.*skip.*$'

    # Extra things to remove due to the addition of 'storycontent' in keep_only_tags,
    # which are the alterative table design based pages. The purpose of some of these
    # is not entirely clear from the pages (which are a total mess!).

    # Remove mapping based tags, Eg. <map id="world_map">
    # The dynamic maps don't seem to work during ebook creation. TO DO:
    # Investigate.
    map_reg_exp = '^.*map.*$'

    # Remove social bookmarking variation, called 'socialBookMarks'.
    social_bookmarks_reg_exp = '^.*social[_ -]*bookmarks.*$'

    # Remove page navigation tools, like 'search', 'email', 'print', called
    # 'blq-mast'.
    blq_mast_reg_exp = '^.*blq[_ -]*mast.*$'

    # Remove 'sharesb', I think this is a generic 'sharing' class. It seems to appear
    # alongside 'socialBookMarks' whenever that appears. I am removing it as well
    # under the assumption that it can appear alone as well.
    sharesb_reg_exp = '^.*sharesb.*$'

    # Remove class 'o'. The worst named user created css class of all time. The creator
    # should immediately be fired. I've seen it used to hold nothing at all but with
    # 20 or so empty lines in it. Also to hold a single link to another article.
    # Whatever it was designed to do it is not wanted by this recipe. Exact
    # match only.
    o_reg_exp = '^o$'

    # Remove 'promotopbg' and 'promobottombg', link lists. Have decided to
    # use two reg expressions to make removing this (and variants) robust.
    promo_top_reg_exp = '^.*promotopbg.*$'
    promo_bottom_reg_exp = '^.*promobottombg.*$'

    # Remove 'nlp', provides heading for link lists. Requires an exact match due to
    # risk of matching those letters in something needed, unless I see a variation
    # of 'nlp' used at a later date.
    nlp_reg_exp = '^nlp$'

    # Remove 'mva', provides embedded floating content of various types. Variant 'mvb'
    # has also now been seen. Requires an exact match of 'mva' or 'mvb' due to risk of
    # matching those letters in something needed.
    mva_or_mvb_reg_exp = '^mv[ab]$'

    # Remove 'mvtb', seems to be page navigation tools, like 'blq-mast'.
    mvtb_reg_exp = '^mvtb$'

    # Remove 'blq-toplink', class to provide a link to the top of the page.
    blq_toplink_reg_exp = '^.*blq[_ -]*top[_ -]*link.*$'

    # Remove 'products and services' links, Eg. desktop tools, alerts, and so on.
    # Eg. Class="servicev4 ukfs_services" - what a mess of a name. Have decided to
    # use two reg expressions to make removing this (and variants) robust.
    prods_services_01_reg_exp = '^.*servicev4.*$'
    prods_services_02_reg_exp = '^.*ukfs[_ -]*services.*$'

    # Remove -what I think is- some kind of navigation tools helper class, though I am
    # not sure, it's called: 'blq-rst blq-new-nav'. What I do know is it pops up
    # frequently and it is not wanted. Have decided to use two reg expressions to make
    # removing this (and variants) robust.
    blq_misc_01_reg_exp = '^.*blq[_ -]*rst.*$'
    blq_misc_02_reg_exp = '^.*blq[_ -]*new[_ -]*nav.*$'

    # Remove 'puffbox' - this may only appear inside 'storyextra', so it may not
    # need removing - I have no clue what it does other than it contains links.
    # Whatever it is - it is not part of the article and is not wanted.
    puffbox_reg_exp = '^.*puffbox.*$'

    # Remove 'sibtbg' and 'sibtbgf' - some kind of table formatting classes.
    sibtbg_reg_exp = '^.*sibtbg.*$'

    # Remove 'storyextra' - links to relevant articles and external sites.
    storyextra_reg_exp = '^.*story[_ -]*extra.*$'

    remove_tags = [
        classes('sharetools share-tools--no-event-tag'),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(story_feature_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            share_help_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            embedded_hyper_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            hypertabs_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            video_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            audio_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            picture_gallery_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            slideshow_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            quote_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            hidden_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            comment_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            story_actions_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            bookmark_list_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'id': re.compile(
            secondary_content_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'id': re.compile(
            featured_content_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'id': re.compile(
            navigation_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='form', attrs={'id': re.compile(
            form_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            quote_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            hidden_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            social_links_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            comment_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            skip_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='map', attrs={'id': re.compile(
            map_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='map', attrs={'name': re.compile(
            map_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div', attrs={'id': re.compile(
            social_bookmarks_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div', attrs={'id': re.compile(
            blq_mast_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div', attrs={'class': re.compile(
            sharesb_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div', attrs={
            'class': re.compile(o_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            promo_top_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            promo_bottom_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={
            'class': re.compile(nlp_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            mva_or_mvb_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            mvtb_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            blq_toplink_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            prods_services_01_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            prods_services_02_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            blq_misc_01_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            blq_misc_02_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(name='div',  attrs={'class': re.compile(
            puffbox_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            sibtbg_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)}),
        dict(attrs={'class': re.compile(
            storyextra_reg_exp, re.IGNORECASE)})
    ]

    # Uses url to create and return the 'printer friendly' version of the url.
    # In other words the 'print this page' address of the page.
    #
    # There are 3 types of urls used in the BBC site's rss feeds. There is just
    # 1 type for the standard news while there are 2 used for sports feed urls.
    # Note: Sports urls are linked from regular news feeds (Eg. 'News Home') when
    # there is a major story of interest to 'everyone'. So even if no BBC sports
    # feeds are added to 'feeds' the logic of this method is still needed to avoid
    # blank / missing / empty articles which have an index title and then no
    # body.
    def print_version(self, url):

        # Handle sports page urls type 01:
        if (url.find("go/rss/-/sport1/") != -1):
            temp_url = url.replace("go/rss/-/", "")

        # Handle sports page urls type 02:
        elif (url.find("go/rss/int/news/-/sport1/") != -1):
            temp_url = url.replace("go/rss/int/news/-/", "")

        # Handle regular news page urls:
        else:
            temp_url = url.replace("go/rss/int/news/-/", "")

        # Always add "?print=true" to the end of the url.
        print_url = temp_url + "?print=true"

        return print_url

    def canonicalize_internal_url(self, url, is_link=True):
        if url.endswith('?print=true'):
            url = url.rpartition('?')[0]
        return BasicNewsRecipe.canonicalize_internal_url(self, url, is_link=is_link)

    # Remove articles in feeds based on a string in the article title or url.
    #
    # Code logic written by: Starson17 - posted in: "Recipes - Re-usable code"
    # thread, in post with title: "Remove articles from feed", see url:
    # http://www.mobileread.com/forums/showpost.php?p=1165462&postcount=6
    # Many thanks and all credit to Starson17.
    #
    # Starson17's code has obviously been altered to suite my requirements.
    def parse_feeds(self):

        # Call parent's method.
        feeds = BasicNewsRecipe.parse_feeds(self)

        # Loop through all feeds.
        for feed in feeds:

            # Loop through all articles in feed.
            for article in feed.articles[:]:

                # Match key words and remove article if there's a match.

                # Most BBC rss feed video only 'articles' use upper case 'VIDEO'
                # as a title prefix. Just match upper case 'VIDEO', so that
                # articles like 'Video game banned' won't be matched and
                # removed.
                if 'VIDEO' in article.title:
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # Most BBC rss feed audio only 'articles' use upper case 'AUDIO'
                # as a title prefix. Just match upper case 'AUDIO', so that
                # articles like 'Hi-Def audio...' won't be matched and removed.
                elif 'AUDIO' in article.title:
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # Most BBC rss feed photo slideshow 'articles' use 'In Pictures',
                # 'In pictures', and 'in pictures', somewhere in their title.
                # Match any case of that phrase.
                elif 'IN PICTURES' in article.title.upper():
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # As above, but user contributed pictures. Match any case.
                elif 'YOUR PICTURES' in article.title.upper():
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # 'Sportsday Live' are articles which contain a constantly and
                # dynamically updated 'running commentary' during a live sporting
                # event. Match any case.
                elif 'SPORTSDAY LIVE' in article.title.upper():
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # Sometimes 'Sportsday Live' (above) becomes 'Live - Sport Name'.
                # These are being matched below using 'Live - ' because removing all
                # articles with 'live' in their titles would remove some articles
                # that are in fact not live sports pages. Match any case.
                elif 'LIVE - ' in article.title.upper():
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # 'Quiz of the week' is a Flash player weekly news quiz. Match only
                # the 'Quiz of the' part in anticipation of monthly and yearly
                # variants. Match any case.
                elif 'QUIZ OF THE' in article.title.upper():
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

                # Remove articles with 'scorecards' in the url. These are BBC sports
                # pages which just display a cricket scorecard. The pages have a mass
                # of table and css entries to display the scorecards nicely. Probably
                # could make them work with this recipe, but might take a whole day
                # of work to sort out all the css - basically a formatting
                # nightmare.
                elif 'scorecards' in article.url:
                    feed.articles.remove(article)

        return feeds

# End of class and file.

Resepi ini hanya menjelajah sebahagian kecil sahaja bila dibandingkan kelebihan yang ada pada calibre. Untuk menjelajah lebih mendalam keupayaan calibre kita perlu menyelidiki contoh sebenar yang lebih kompleks pada seksyen berikutnya.

Contoh sebenar

Contoh sebenar yang benar-benar kompleks yang mendedahkan lebih API BasicNewsRecipe adalah resepi untuk The New York Times

import string, re
from calibre import strftime
from calibre.web.feeds.recipes import BasicNewsRecipe
from calibre.ebooks.BeautifulSoup import BeautifulSoup

class NYTimes(BasicNewsRecipe):

    title       = 'The New York Times'
    __author__  = 'Kovid Goyal'
    description = 'Daily news from the New York Times'
    timefmt = ' [%a, %d %b, %Y]'
    needs_subscription = True
    remove_tags_before = dict(id='article')
    remove_tags_after  = dict(id='article')
    remove_tags = [dict(attrs={'class':['articleTools', 'post-tools', 'side_tool', 'nextArticleLink clearfix']}),
                dict(id=['footer', 'toolsRight', 'articleInline', 'navigation', 'archive', 'side_search', 'blog_sidebar', 'side_tool', 'side_index']),
                dict(name=['script', 'noscript', 'style'])]
    encoding = 'cp1252'
    no_stylesheets = True
    extra_css = 'h1 {font: sans-serif large;}\n.byline {font:monospace;}'

    def get_browser(self):
        br = BasicNewsRecipe.get_browser()
        if self.username is not None and self.password is not None:
            br.open('https://www.nytimes.com/auth/login')
            br.select_form(name='login')
            br['USERID']   = self.username
            br['PASSWORD'] = self.password
            br.submit()
        return br

    def parse_index(self):
        soup = self.index_to_soup('https://www.nytimes.com/pages/todayspaper/index.html')

        def feed_title(div):
            return ''.join(div.findAll(text=True, recursive=False)).strip()

        articles = {}
        key = None
        ans = []
        for div in soup.findAll(True,
             attrs={'class':['section-headline', 'story', 'story headline']}):

             if div['class'] == 'section-headline':
                 key = string.capwords(feed_title(div))
                 articles[key] = []
                 ans.append(key)

             elif div['class'] in ['story', 'story headline']:
                 a = div.find('a', href=True)
                 if not a:
                     continue
                 url = re.sub(r'\?.*', '', a['href'])
                 url += '?pagewanted=all'
                 title = self.tag_to_string(a, use_alt=True).strip()
                 description = ''
                 pubdate = strftime('%a, %d %b')
                 summary = div.find(True, attrs={'class':'summary'})
                 if summary:
                     description = self.tag_to_string(summary, use_alt=False)

                 feed = key if key is not None else 'Uncategorized'
                 if not articles.has_key(feed):
                     articles[feed] = []
                 if not 'podcasts' in url:
                     articles[feed].append(
                               dict(title=title, url=url, date=pubdate,
                                    description=description,
                                    content=''))
        ans = self.sort_index_by(ans, {'The Front Page':-1, 'Dining In, Dining Out':1, 'Obituaries':2})
        ans = [(key, articles[key]) for key in ans if articles.has_key(key)]
        return ans

    def preprocess_html(self, soup):
        refresh = soup.find('meta', {'http-equiv':'refresh'})
        if refresh is None:
            return soup
        content = refresh.get('content').partition('=')[2]
        raw = self.browser.open('https://www.nytimes.com'+content).read()
        return BeautifulSoup(raw.decode('cp1252', 'replace'))

Kami melihat beberapa fitur baharu dalam resepi ini. Mula-mula, kita perlu:

timefmt = ' [%a, %d %b, %Y]'

Ini tetapkan masa paparan pada muka hadapan e-buku yang dihasilkan dalam format, Day, Day_Number Month, Year. Sila rujuk timefmt.

Kemudian kita lihat sekumpulan arahan untuk membersihkan HTML dimuat turun:

remove_tags_before = dict(name='h1')
remove_tags_after  = dict(id='footer')
remove_tags = ...

Ia membuang segalanya sebelum <h1> tag pertama dan segalanya selepas tag pertama yang mana id ialah footer. Sila rujuk remove_tags, remove_tags_before, remove_tags_after.

Fitur menarik berikutnya ialah:

needs_subscription = True
...
def get_browser(self):
    ...

needs_subscription = True memberitahui calibre bahawa resepi ini perlukan nama pengguna dan kata laluan supaya ia dapat capai kandungan tersebut. Oleh itu, calibre meminta nama pengguna dan kata laluan bila anda cuba guna resepi ini. Kod di dalam calibre.web.feeds.news.BasicNewsRecipe.get_browser() sebenarnya mendaftar masuk ke laman sesawang the NYT. Seusai mendaftar masuk, calibre akan menggunakannya semula untuk dapatkan semua kandungan. Sila rujuk mechanize untuk memahami kod di dalam get_browser.

The next new feature is the calibre.web.feeds.news.BasicNewsRecipe.parse_index() method. Its job is to go to https://www.nytimes.com/pages/todayspaper/index.html and fetch the list of articles that appear in todays paper. While more complex than simply using RSS, the recipe creates an e-book that corresponds very closely to the days paper. parse_index makes heavy use of BeautifulSoup to parse the daily paper webpage. You can also use other, more modern parsers if you dislike BeatifulSoup. calibre comes with lxml and html5lib, which are the recommended parsers. To use them, replace the call to index_to_soup() with the following:

raw = self.index_to_soup(url, raw=True)
# For html5lib
import html5lib
root = html5lib.parse(raw, namespaceHTMLElements=False, treebuilder='lxml')
# For the lxml html 4 parser
from lxml import html
root = html.fromstring(raw)

Fitur baharu terakhir ialah kaedah calibre.web.feeds.news.BasicNewsRecipe.preprocess_html(). Ia boleh digunakan untuk melakukan transformasi arbitari pada setiap halaman HTML dimuat turun. Di sini ia digunakan untuk melangkaui iklan yang mana nytimes paparkan sebelum setiap artikel.

Petua untuk membangunkan resepi baharu

Cara terbaik membangunkan resepi baharu adalah dengan penggunaan antaramuka baris perintah. Cipta resepi mengguna penyunting Python kegemaran anda dan simpan ia ke dalam fail seperti resepisaya.recipe. Sambungan .recipe diperlukan. Kemudian anda boleh muat turun kandungan menggunakan resepi dengan perintah:

ebook-convert myrecipe.recipe .epub --test -vv --debug-pipeline debug

Perintah ebook-convert akan muat turun semua laman sesawang dan simpan ia ke dalam fail EPUB resepisaya.epub. Pilihan -vv menjadikan ebook-convert buang banyak maklumat berkenaan kerjanya. Pilihan --test menyuruh ia muat turun hanya beberapa pasangan artikel paling banyak dari dua suapan. Selain itu, ebook-convert akan masukkan HTML dimuat turun ke direktori debug/input, iaitu debug adalah direktori yang anda nyatakan dalam pilihan ebook-convert --debug-pipeline.

Selepas muat turun selesai, anda boleh lihat HTML dimuat turun dengan membuka fail debug/input/index.html di dalam pelayar. Jika anda puashati dengan muat turun dan pra-pemprosesan yang berlaku sepertimana yang diharapkan, anda boleh jana e-buku dalam format berlainan seperti di bawah:

ebook-convert myrecipe.recipe myrecipe.epub
ebook-convert myrecipe.recipe myrecipe.mobi
...

Jika anda puashati dengan resepi anda, dan anda dapati masih terdapat ruang untuk ruang penambahbaikan dalam set resepi terbina-dalam, poskan resepi anda ke forum resepi calibre recipes untuk berkongsi ia dengan lain-lain pengguna calibre.

Note

Pada MacOS, alat baris perintah disediakan dalam calibre, contohnya, jika anda memasang calibre di dalam /Applications alat baris perintah berada di dalam /Applications/calibre.app/Contents/console.app/Contents/MacOS/.

See also

ebook-convert
Antaramuka baris perintah untuk semua pertukaran format e-buku.

Bacaan lanjutan

Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut berkenaan penulisan resepi lanjutan dengan menggunakan beberapa fasiliti, yang tersedia dalam BasicNewsRecipe anda perlu ke beberapa sumber berikut:

Dokumentasi API
Dokumentasi kelas BasicNewsRecipe dan semua kaedah dan medan pentingnya.
BasicNewsRecipe
Kod sumber BasicNewsRecipe
Resepi terbina-dalam
Kod sumber untuk resepi terbina-dalam yang disertakan dengan calibre
Forum resepi calibre
Lebih banyak penulis resepi calibre yang berpengetahuan datang ke sini.